One of the long term effects was that NATO was formed. The west was now very worried about Russian threats. In March 1948 the Brussel treaty was signed between many allied countries, the principal it was based upon being that an attack on one country was an attack on them all.
The formation of East and West Germany. The west sections became the Federal Republic of Germany (FDR) with its capital in Bonn. The Russian section became the Democratic German Republic (DDR). There were now two Germanys
The western section was re-militarised when in 1955 the west got round the Potsdam treaty by raising an army through the Western European Union which was under the control of NATO.
The Cold War between communist and non-communist countries had begun in Europe. In 1946 Churchill said that an "iron curtain" had descended across Europe from "Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic".